A similar category to the single image on multiple covers is the image that turns up on both book and CD album covers.
Here's an example (involving Ali Smith, who has had this done to her before):
Then there's this: not quite the same image, but presumably one from the same shoot (and an appropriate link for an Ibiza crime/sex/drugs novel):
There are others out there (any suggestions, anybody?), but I'd like to finish here with a different sort of example. It's a book that uses the cover image AND album title of a famous album:
This is from the 33 1/3 series published by Continuum--a series of books supposedly about the stories behind specific albums. Joe Pernice's Meat is Murder, however, is instead a really nifty little novella about growing up a Smiths fan in 1980s suburban America. I've reviewed it at greater length elsewhere. I just wanted another excuse to plug it, really.
UPDATE: Following on from the update to this post, I should note that the Ali Smith/Primal Scream covers use a William Eggleston photo.